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    Research News Roundup: March 14, 2024

    Exposure to E-Cigarette Advertisements or Reviews and E-Cigarette Use Progression: A Longitudinal Examination of Short-Term and Long-Term Associations among US Young Adults

    Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2024, doi: 10.3390/ijerph21020123

    Authors: Zongshuan Duan, Katelyn F. Romm, Yan Wang, Jidong Huang, & Carla J. Berg


    Limited research has investigated the impact of e-cigarette advertising and reviews on the progression of e-cigarette use among young adults in the US. This study utilized five-wave longitudinal data (2018-2020) with 3006 young adults aged 18-34, reporting exposure to e-cigarette advertisements or reviews at Wave 1 (W1) and W3. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to examine the prospective associations between frequent exposure to e-cigarette advertisements or reviews and e-cigarette use progression in four groups: never users (n = 1271 at W1), former users (previously used but quit ≥ 6 months ago, n = 422 at W1), recent former users (used in the past 6 months but not in the past month, n = 186 at W1), and current users (used in the past month, n = 1127 at W1). Among baseline former users, frequent exposure to e-cigarette reviews was associated with current use at 6-month follow-up (aOR = 4.40, 95%CI = 1.46-13.29). Among baseline current users, frequent exposure to e-cigarette reviews was associated with increased days of use at 6-month follow-up (IRR = 1.20, 95%CI = 1.07-1.34) and 12-month follow-up (IRR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.03-1.35). E-cigarette reviews may contribute to relapse among recent former users and increased usage frequency among current users, highlighting the need for enhanced e-cigarette promotional activity regulation.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    Co-Occurrence of Mental Illness and Substance Use among US Pregnant Individuals, 2012-2021

    Journal: Psychiatry Research, 2024, doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2024.115820

    Authors: Zhong Li, Curisa M. Tucker, Cassie L. Odahowski, Kacey Y. Eichelberger, Jiajia Zhang, & Peiyin Hung


    Aim: Substance use disorders are increasingly prevalent among pregnant individuals, with evident risks of adverse perinatal outcomes. This study examines substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana) among pregnant individuals with mental illness.

    Methods: A national representative sample of pregnant individuals were derived from 2012 to 2021 National Survey of Drug Use and Health data. Associations of past-year mental illness with past-month polysubstance use and each substance use were analyzed by logistic regression models, with complex sampling weights and survey year.

    Results: Among 6801 pregnant individuals, 16.4% reported having any mental illness (AMI) in 2012 and 2013, increasing to 23.8% in 2020-2021; and SMI increased from 3.3% to 9.4%. Polysubstance use increased disproportionately among those with severe mental illness (SMI), from 14.0% to 18.6%. Pregnant individuals with greater severity of mental illness had higher odds of polysubstance use (Adjusted Odds Ratio, 95% CI: AMI but no SMI vs. without AMI: 1.59 [1.04, 2.44]; SMI vs. without AMI: 5.48 [2.77, 10.82]).

    Conclusions: Pregnant individuals with greater severity of mental illness were more likely to engage in substance use. Evidence-based educational, screening and treatment services, and public policy changes are warranted to mitigate the harmful health outcomes of substance use among US pregnant individuals with mental illness.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    Language-Based EMA Assessments Help Understand Problematic Alcohol Consumption

    Journal: PLoS One, 2024, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0298300

    Authors: August Håkan Nilsson, Hansen Andrew Schwartz, Richard N. Rosenthal, James R. McKay, Huy Vu, Young-Min Cho, Syeda Mahwish, Adithya V. Ganesan, & Lyle Ungar


    Background: Unhealthy alcohol consumption is a severe public health problem. But low to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with high subjective well-being, possibly because alcohol is commonly consumed socially together with friends, who often are important for subjective well-being. Disentangling the health and social complexities of alcohol behavior has been difficult using traditional rating scales with cross-section designs. We aim to better understand these complexities by examining individuals’ everyday affective subjective well-being language, in addition to rating scales, and via both between- and within-person designs across multiple weeks.

    Method: We used daily language and ecological momentary assessment on 908 US restaurant workers (12692 days) over two-week intervals. Participants were asked up to three times a day to “describe your current feelings”, rate their emotions, and report their alcohol behavior in the past 24 hours, including if they were drinking alone or with others.

    Results: Both between and within individuals, language-based subjective well-being predicted alcohol behavior more accurately than corresponding rating scales. Individuals self-reported being happier on days when drinking more, with language characteristic of these days predominantly describing socializing with friends. Between individuals (over several weeks), subjective well-being correlated much more negatively with drinking alone (r = -.29) than it did with total drinking (r = -.10). Aligned with this, people who drank more alone generally described their feelings as sad, stressed and anxious and drinking alone days related to nervous and annoyed language as well as a lower reported subjective well-being.

    Conclusions: Individuals’ daily subjective well-being, as measured via language, in part, explained the social aspects of alcohol drinking. Further, being alone explained this relationship, such that drinking alone was associated with lower subjective well-being.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    Use of Tobacco Products and Suicide Attempts Among Elementary School-Aged Children

    Journal: JAMA Network Open, 2024, doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2024.0376

    Authors: Phil H. Lee, Brenden Tervo-Clemmens, Richard T. Liu, Maia B. Gersten, Jae-Yoon Jung, Amy C. Janes, & Jodi Gilman


    Importance: The use of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and vaping, has rapidly increased among children. However, despite consistent associations found between smoking cigarettes and suicidal behaviors among adolescents and adults, there are limited data on associations between emerging tobacco products and suicidal behaviors, especially among preadolescent children.

    Objective: To examine whether the use of tobacco products is associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicidal ideation (SI), and suicide attempts (SAs) among preadolescent children.

    Design, setting, and participants: This cohort study, conducted from September 1, 2022, to September 5, 2023, included participants in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, a population-based cohort of 11 868 US children enrolled at 9 and 10 years of age. The cross-sectional investigation focused on 3-year periods starting from the baseline to year 2 of follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed from October 1, 2022, to June 30, 2023.

    Main outcomes and measures: Children’s use of tobacco products was assessed based on youth reports, including lifetime experiences of various nicotine-related products, supplemented with hair toxicologic tests. Main outcomes were children’s lifetime experiences of NSSI, SI, and SAs, assessed using the K-SADS-5 (Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for the DSM-5). Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to examine the associations of the use of tobacco products with NSSI, SI, and SAs among the study participants. Sociodemographic, familial, and children’s behavioral, temperamental, and clinical outcomes were adjusted in the analyses.

    Results: Of 8988 unrelated study participants (median age, 9.8 years [range, 8.9-11.0 years]; 4301 girls [47.9%]), 101 children (1.1%) and 151 children (1.7%) acknowledged lifetime use of tobacco products at baseline and at 18-month follow-up, respectively. After accounting for various suicide risk factors and potential confounders, children reporting use of tobacco products were at a 3 to 5 times increased risk of SAs (baseline: n = 153 [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 4.67; 95% CI, 2.35-9.28; false discovery rate (FDR)-corrected P < .001]; year 1: n = 227 [adjusted OR, 4.25; 95% CI, 2.33-7.74; FDR-corrected P < .001]; and year 2: n = 321 [adjusted OR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.58-5.13; FDR-corrected P = .001]). Of all facets of impulsivity measures that were significant correlates of use of tobacco products, negative urgency was the only independent risk factor for SAs (adjusted OR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.31-1.78]; FDR-corrected P < .001). In contrast, children’s alcohol, cannabis, and prescription drug use were not associated with SAs.

    Conclusions and relevance: This study of US children suggests that the increased risk of SAs, consistently reported for adolescents and adults who smoke cigarettes, extends to a range of emerging tobacco products and manifests among elementary school-aged children. Further investigations are imperative to clarify the underlying mechanisms and to implement effective preventive policies for children.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    Systematic Review on Intentional Non-Medical Fentanyl Use among People Who Use Drugs

    Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry, 2024, doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2024.1347678

    Authors: Vivian W. L. Tsang, James S. H. Wong, Jean N. Westenberg, Noor H. Ramadhan, Hasti Fadakar, Mohammadali Nikoo, Victor W. Li, … Reinhard M. Krausz


    Objectives: Fentanyl is a highly potent opioid and has, until recently, been considered an unwanted contaminant in the street drug supply among people who use drugs (PWUD). However, it has become a drug of choice for an increasing number of individuals. This systematic review evaluated intentional non-medical fentanyl use among PWUD, specifically by summarizing demographic variance, reasons for use, and resulting patterns of use.

    Methods: The search strategy was developed with a combination of free text keywords and MeSH and non-MeSH keywords, and adapted with database-specific filters to Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and PsychINFO. Studies included were human studies with intentional use of non-medical fentanyl or analogues in individuals older than 13. Only peer-reviewed original articles available in English were included.

    Results: The search resulted in 4437 studies after de-duplication, of which 132 were selected for full-text review. Out of 41 papers included, it was found that individuals who use fentanyl intentionally were more likely to be young, male, and White. They were also more likely to have experienced overdoses, and report injection drug use. There is evidence that fentanyl seeking behaviours are motivated by greater potency, delay of withdrawal, lower cost, and greater availability.

    Conclusions: Among PWUD, individuals who intentionally use fentanyl have severe substance use patterns, precarious living situations, and extensive overdose history. In response to the increasing number of individuals who use fentanyl, alternative treatment approaches need to be developed for more effective management of withdrawal and opioid use disorder.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.


    March 2024