Research News Roundup: August 5, 2021

    Mothering from the Inside Out: Addressing the Intersection of Addiction, Adversity, and Attachment with Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention

    Journal: Current Addiction Reports, 2021, doi: 10.1007/s40429-021-00389

    Authors: Amanda F. Lowell, Elizabeth Peacock-Chambers, Amanda Zayde, Cindy L. DeCoste, Thomas J. McMahon & Nancy E. Suchman

    Abstract:
    Purpose of Review: Mothers with substance use disorders are often referred for parenting support, though commonly available programs may miss the mark for families impacted by addiction. This may be related to a lack of attention to children’s emotional needs, mothers’ histories of adversity, and the neurobiological differences seen in mothers with addictions. We review the implications of addiction, adversity, and attachment for parenting interventions. We then describe Mothering from the Inside Out (MIO), an evidence-based parenting intervention designed specifically for mothers with addictions.

    Recent Findings: Evidence from clinical trials suggests that MIO improves outcomes for two generations: both mothers with addictions and their children. Recent trials demonstrate that MIO may be delivered effectively by community-based clinicians and may be beneficial for parents with other chronic stressors.

    Summary: Addressing addiction, adversity, and attachment simultaneously may have a positive synergistic effect. Future research should study the implementation of MIO in real-world settings and examine the impact of MIO on maternal neurobiology.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    Emergency Department Strategies to Combat the Opioid Crisis in Children and Adolescents

    Journal: JACEP Open, 2021, doi: 10.1002/emp2.12512

    Authors: Cindy D. Chang, Mohsen Saidinejad, Zaza Atanelov, Ann M. Dietrich, Samuel Hiu-Fung Lam, Emily Rose, Tim Ruttan, Sam Shahid, et al

    Abstract:
    The opioid crisis has greatly affected not only adults but also children as well. As clinicians develop effective approaches to minimize pain and distress in children, the risks and benefits of opioids must be carefully considered. Children of parents with opioid use disorder are also at risk of living in unstable environments, performing poorly academically, engaging in future drug use, and having increased stress, which affects their development before entering adulthood. This statement focuses on the effects of the opioid crisis on children and adolescents and is intended to inform institutional policies, improve education, advocate for evidence-informed guidelines, and improve the care of children affected by the opioid epidemic who are seen in the emergency department.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    Prevalence of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems and Electronic Non-Nicotine Delivery Systems in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Journal: The Lancet Public Health, 2021, doi: 10.1016/S2468-2667(21)00106-7

    Authors: Sze Lin Yoong, Alix Hall, Alecia Leonard, Sam McCrabb, John Wiggers, Edouard Tursan d’Espaignet, et al

    Abstract:
    Background: There are concerns that the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and electronic non-nicotine delivery systems (ENNDS) in children and adolescents could potentially be harmful to health. Understanding the extent of use of these devices is crucial to informing public health policy. We aimed to synthesise the prevalence of ENDS or ENNDS use in children and adolescents younger than 20 years.

    Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we undertook an electronic search in five databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, and Wiley Cochrane Library) from Jan 1, 2016, to Aug 31, 2020, and a grey literature search. Included studies reported on the prevalence of ENDS or ENNDS use in nationally representative samples in populations younger than 20 years and collected data between the years 2016 and 2020. Studies were excluded if they were done in those aged 20 years or older, used data from specialist panels that did not apply appropriate weighting, or did not use methods that ensured recruitment of a nationally representative sample. We included the most recent data for each country. We combined multiple national estimates for a country if they were done in the same year. We undertook risk of bias assessment for all surveys included in the review using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist (by two reviewers in the author list). A random effects meta-analysis was used to pool overall prevalence estimates for ever, current, occasional, and daily use. This study was prospectively registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020199485.

    Findings: The most recent prevalence data from 26 national surveys representing 69 countries and territories, with a median sample size of 3925 (IQR 1=2266, IQR 3=10 593) children and adolescents was included. In children and adolescents aged between 8 years and younger than 20 years, the pooled prevalence for ever (defined as any lifetime use) ENDS or ENNDS use was 17·2% (95% CI 15–20, I2=99·9%), whereas for current use (defined as use in past 30 days) the pooled prevalence estimate was 7·8% (6–9, I2=99·8%). The pooled estimate for occasional use was 0·8% (0·5–1·2, I2=99·4%) for daily use and 7·5% (6·1–9·1, I2=99·4%) for occasional use. Prevalence of ENDS or ENNDS use was highest in high-income geographical regions. In terms of study quality, all surveys scored had a low risk of bias for the sampling frame used, due to the nationally representative nature of the studies. The most poorly conducted methodological feature of the included studies was subjects and setting described in detail. Few surveys reported on the use of flavours or types of ENDS or ENNDS.

    Interpretation: There is significant variability in the prevalence of ENDS and ENNDS use in children and adolescents globally by country income status. These findings are possibly due to differences in regulatory context, market availability, and differences in surveillance

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    Brain Reward Circuitry: The Overlapping Neurobiology of Trauma and Substance Use Disorders

    Journal: World Journal of Psychiatry, 2021, doi: 10.5498/wjp.v11.i6.222

    Authors: Timothy I Michaels, Emily Stone, Sonali Singal, Vladan Novakovic, Robert L Barkin & Stacy Barkin

    Abstract:
    Mental health symptoms secondary to trauma exposure and substance use disorders (SUDs) co-occur frequently in both clinical and community samples. The possibility of a shared aetiology remains an important question in translational neuroscience. Advancements in genetics, basic science, and neuroimaging have led to an improved understanding of the neural basis of these disorders, their frequent comorbidity and high rates of relapse remain a clinical challenge. This project aimed to conduct a review of the field’s current understanding regarding the neural circuitry underlying posttraumatic stress disorder and SUD. A comprehensive review was conducted of available published literature regarding the shared neurobiology of these disorders, and is summarized in detail, including evidence from both animal and clinical studies. Upon summarizing the relevant literature, this review puts forth a hypothesis related to their shared neurobiology within the context of fear processing and reward cues. It provides an overview of brain reward circuitry and its relation to the neurobiology, symptomology, and phenomenology of trauma and substance use. This review provides clinical insights and implications of the proposed theory, including the potential development of novel pharmacological and therapeutic treatments to address this shared neurobiology. Limitations and extensions of this theory are discussed to provide future directions and insights for this shared phenomena.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    Evaluation of Neighborhood Deprivation and Store Characteristics in Relation to Tobacco Retail Outlet Sales Violations

    Journal: Plos One, 2021, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0254443

    Authors: David C. Wheeler, Elizabeth K. Do, Rashelle B. Hayes, Colleen Hughes & Bernard F. Fuemmeler

    Abstract:
    Introduction: Regulations of the sale of tobacco products to minors have been effective at reducing adolescent tobacco use overall. However, these efforts may not be uniformly enforced in all areas, creating uneven protection against adolescent smoking. Knowledge regarding factors associated with tobacco retail outlet (TRO) violations could help inform better enforcement strategies.

    Methods: In this study, we used Bayesian index regression models to determine if tobacco sales to minors violations across Virginia (2012–2021) were related to store characteristics and neighborhood deprivation and identify geographic areas at significantly elevated risk for violations after adjusting for these factors.

    Results: Results show that there were multiple factors associated with a higher likelihood of tobacco sales violations. Store type was an important factor, as grocery stores and pharmacies had significantly lowered likelihood of violations compared with convenience stores. Being located near another TRO was significantly associated with increased risk of sales to a minor. Neighborhood deprivation was also positively associated with TRO sales violations. Further, there were statistically higher likelihood of sales violations occurring in specific areas (e.g., southwest and southeast) of the state that were not explained by neighborhood deprivation and store attributes.

    Conclusions: Together, results highlight the need to better understand where and why TRO sales violations are occurring in order to improve efforts aimed at monitoring and remediating TRO sales violations.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    By Partnership Staff
    August 2021

    Published

    August 2021