Significant developmental changes in adolescence typically lead to increased risky behavior, including substance use. Survey data indicated that adolescent alcohol and drug use has declined in recent years, with the exception of marijuana use, which has remained consistent, and e-cigarette use, which is on the rise. This chapter provides a summary of prevalence rates, trends, and maladaptive consequences of adolescent substance use. Etiological models of adolescent substance use are discussed, including dual-process and biopsychosocial models. Current literature on evidence-based screening, comprehensive assessment, and treatment is also reviewed. Despite the recent advances made regarding our ability to screen, assess, diagnose, and treat adolescent substance use, a significant treatment gap persists, which has significant individual and public health impacts. This chapter therefore concludes with a call for research that aims to increase patient awareness of effective treatment via strategies such as technology-delivered assessment and intervention and usage of direct-to-consumer marketing.
The Oxford Handbook of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 2019 Jan. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190634841.013.29.