Call 1.855.378.4373 to schedule a call time with a specialist or visit
Call 1.855.378.4373 to schedule a call time with a specialist

    Research News Roundup: May 2, 2024

    Understanding the Patient and Supporter Journey in Cocaine Use Disorder

    Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry, 2024, doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2024.1230626

    Authors: Denise Leclair, Katherine M. Waye, Baltazar Gomez-Mancilla, Brian D. Kiluk, Ananda Krishna Karanam, Partha S. Banerjee, Velusamy Shanmuganathan Muthusamy, & Suzanne Maahs


    Background: There is a paucity of literature describing experiences and journey of individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) and supporters who care for them. The aim of this study was to understand and document the journey of individuals with current CUD, those in CUD remission, and supporters.

    Methods: The online bulletin board (OBB) is a qualitative tool where participants engage in an interactive discussion on a virtual forum. After completing a 15-minute screening questionnaire determining eligibility, individuals in CUD remission and supporters participated in an OBB for 60 minutes, split across 8 days over 2 weeks. Individuals with current CUD participated in a one-time virtual focus group discussion for 90 minutes.

    Results: Individuals in CUD remission (n=35) were from Brazil, France, Spain, the UK, and the US; those with current CUD (n=5) and supporters (n=6) were from the US. Key insights were that individuals with current CUD were seeking a ‘euphoric high’ that cocaine provides. Those in CUD remission described a ‘euphoric high’ when they first tried cocaine, but over time it became harder to re-create this feeling. Individuals in CUD remission expressed a ‘rollercoaster’ of emotions from when they first started using cocaine to when they stopped. Supporters were sad, isolated, and worried about a potential cocaine overdose for their loved ones with CUD.

    Conclusion: The study provides valuable insights into the experiences and journey of individuals with CUD and their supporters. Data generated from this study gives insights into this under-served and growing population.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    Bidirectional Relationships Between Nicotine Vaping and Maladaptive Eating Behaviors Among Young Adults

    Journal: Addictive Behaviors Reports, 2024, doi: 10.1016/j.abrep.2024.100547

    Authors: H. Isabella Lanza, Kailey Waller, & Lalaine Sevillano


    Background: Past research indicates that young adult cigarette smokers are at risk of engaging in maladaptive eating behaviors (MEBs); however, whether this relationship extends to nicotine vaping is unclear. The current study assessed bidirectional associations between four types of MEBs and nicotine vaping among young adults.

    Methods: 1,303 young adults (20.5 ± 2.3 years; 63 % female) from a public, urban university were recruited and completed online surveys at six-month intervals from spring 2021 (W1) to spring 2023 (W5). Past 30-day nicotine vaping and four types of MEBs (susceptibility to external cues, emotional eating, routine restraint, and compensatory restraint) were evaluated.

    Results: Longitudinal cross-lagged models examined the bidirectional relationships between past 30-day nicotine vaping and each type of MEB across five waves. Nicotine vaping predicted both susceptibility to external cues (β = 0.10, p <.05; Wave 2 to 3) and emotional eating (β = 0.08, p <.05; Wave 1 to 2). A significant cross-lag regression (Wave 4 to 5) showed nicotine vaping predicted to routine restraint (β = 0.08, p <.05), and routine restraint predicted to nicotine vaping (β = 0.12, p <.05).

    Conclusions: Results indicated that nicotine vaping predicted MEBs; however, the type of MEB differed across waves, which may have been due to the COVID-19 pandemic context. Nicotine vaping predicted to MEBs reflecting vulnerability to the external environment and emotion regulation during a period of heightened restrictions, whereas later when pandemic restrictions had ceased nicotine vaping predicted only to routine restraint. Integrating research and practice on nicotine vaping and MEBs may inform public health efforts to decrease co-occurring health-risks in young adulthood.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    Long-Term Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Anxiety in Adults: A Systematic Review

    Journal: Addictive Behaviors, 2024, doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2024.108047

    Authors: Simon D’Aquino, Akaash Kumar, Benjamin Riordan, & Sarah Callinan


    Objective: Despite the high prevalence and comorbidity of alcohol consumption and anxiety, it is unclear whether alcohol consumption influences long-term anxiety. This study aimed to systematically review the literature on the long-term longitudinal effects of alcohol consumption on anxiety in adults.

    Methods: EMBASE, PsychInfo, Medline, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched from inception to April 12th, 2024. Articles analysing the relationship between alcohol consumption and anxiety symptoms or anxiety disorder diagnosis at least three-months later in adults were eligible. Articles were screened and extracted by two independent reviewers with study quality assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool.

    Results: From 884 records, eight studies of mixed quality met inclusion criteria. One study using a sample representative of the USA population found low volume consumption was associated with lower long-term anxiety. All other studies used a convenience sample or a specific medical population sample. The significance and direction of the relationship between alcohol consumption and long-term anxiety in these studies varied, likely due to differences in alcohol consumption thresholds used and populations studied.

    Conclusions: A paucity of research on the longitudinal effects of alcohol consumption on anxiety was found, highlighting a significant gap in the research literature. Furthermore, existing research, primarily focused on clinical subpopulations, has yielded mixed results. Further research is needed to explore the longitudinal dose dependent impact of alcohol consumption on anxiety using samples representative of national populations.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    Cannabis Use and Mood Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Journal: Frontiers in Public Health, 2024, doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2024.1346207

    Authors: Maryam Sorkhou, Eliza L. Dent, & Tony P. George


    Background: Problematic cannabis use is highly prevalent among people with mood disorders. This underscores the need to understand the effects of cannabis and cannabinoids in this population, especially considering legalization of recreational cannabis use.

    Objectives: We aimed to (1) systematically evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal studies investigating the interplay between cannabis use, cannabis use disorder (CUD), and the occurrence of mood disorders and symptoms, with a focus on major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) and; (2) examine the effects of cannabis on the prognosis and treatment outcomes of MDD and BD.

    Methods: Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted an extensive search for English-language studies investigating the potential impact of cannabis on the development and prognosis of mood disorders published from inception through November 2023, using EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and MEDLINE databases.

    Results: Our literature search identified 3,262 studies, with 78 meeting inclusion criteria. We found that cannabis use is associated with increased depressive and manic symptoms in the general population in addition to an elevated likelihood of developing MDD and BD. Furthermore, we observed that cannabis use is linked to an unfavorable prognosis in both MDD or BD.

    Discussion: Our findings suggest that cannabis use may negatively influence the development, course, and prognosis of MDD and BD. Future well-designed studies, considering type, amount, and frequency of cannabis use while addressing confounding factors, are imperative for a comprehensive understanding of this relationship.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    Access to Mental Health and Substance Use Treatment in Comprehensive Primary Care Plus

    Journal: JAMA Network Open, 2024, doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2024.8519

    Authors: Tatiane Santos, Alon Bergman, & Aaron Smith-McLallen


    Importance: To meet increasing demand for mental health and substance use services, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services launched the 5-year Comprehensive Primary Care Plus (CPC+) demonstration in 2017, requiring primary care practices to integrate behavioral health services.

    Objective: To examine the association of CPC+ with access to mental health and substance use treatment before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Design, setting, and participants: Using difference-in-differences analyses, this retrospective cohort study compared adults attributed to CPC+ and non-CPC+ practices, from January 1, 2018, to June 30, 2022. The study included adults aged 19 to 64 years who had depression, anxiety, or opioid use disorder (OUD) and were enrolled with a private health insurer in Pennsylvania. Data were analyzed from January to June 2023.

    Exposure: Receipt of care at a practice participating in CPC+.

    Main outcomes and measures: Total cost of care and the number of primary care visits for evaluation and management, community mental health center visits, psychiatric hospitalizations, substance use treatment visits (residential and nonresidential), and prescriptions filled for antidepressants, anxiolytics, buprenorphine, naltrexone, or methadone.

    Results: The 188 770 individuals in the sample included 102 733 adults (mean [SD] age, 49.5 [5.6] years; 57 531 women [56.4%]) attributed to 152 CPC+ practices and 86 037 adults (mean [SD] age, 51.6 [6.6] years; 47 321 women [54.9%]) attributed to 317 non-CPC+ practices. Among patients diagnosed with OUD, compared with patients attributed to non-CPC+ practices, attribution to a CPC+ practice was associated with filling more prescriptions for buprenorphine (0.117 [95% CI, 0.037 to 0.196] prescriptions per patient per quarter) and anxiolytics (0.162 [95% CI, 0.005 to 0.319] prescriptions per patient per quarter). Among patients diagnosed with depression or anxiety, attribution to a CPC+ practice was associated with more prescriptions for buprenorphine (0.024 [95% CI, 0.006 to 0.041] prescriptions per patient per quarter).

    Conclusions and relevance: Findings of this cohort study suggest that individuals with an OUD who received care at a CPC+ practice filled more buprenorphine and anxiolytics prescriptions compared with patients who received care at a non-CPC+ practice. As the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation invests in advanced primary care demonstrations, it is critical to understand whether these models are associated with indicators of high-quality primary care.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.


    May 2024