Research News Roundup: June 3, 2021

    Characterizing symptoms of e-cigarette dependence: A qualitative study of young adults

    Journal: BMC Public Health, 2021, doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-10945-z

    Authors: Kelsey A. Simpson, Afton Kechter, Sara J. Schiff, Jessica L. Braymiller, Naosuke Yamaguchi, Rachel Carmen Ceasar, Ricky N. Bluthenthal & Jessica L. Barrington-Trimis

    Abstract:
    Background: While rates of e-cigarette use (‘vaping’) continue to potentiate concern, there is limited data on common symptoms of e-cigarette dependence among young adults who vape. This study sought to critically explore how young adults experience, manifest, and conceptualize vaping dependence symptoms in their everyday lives.

    Methods: Between June 2018 and 2019, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 62 young adults who use e-cigarettes (aged 18–25) and live in Southern California. We explored participants’ product preferences, daily e-cigarette use patterns, vaping history, withdrawal experiences, and quit attempts or periods of cessation. We used a thematic analysis approach to interpret the transcripts.

    Results: Young adults discussed nine dimensions of vaping dependence that were organized into two categories: 1) general nicotine dependence symptoms, and 2) unique dependence symptoms related to vaping. Nicotine dependence symptoms included cravings and urgency to use, increased use to achieve desired effects, and unsuccessful quit attempts and withdrawal. Symptoms unique to vaping dependence included greater nicotine consumption due to accessibility and lack of restrictions, habitual vaping, inability to track vaping frequency, immediate gratification and comfort, social acceptability and norms, and awareness of vaping dependency.

    Conclusions: In addition to nicotine dependence symptoms that have been characterized for other tobacco products, young adult e-cigarette users described unique symptoms of vaping dependence that necessitate the need for more refined measures. All dimensions of vaping dependence should be considered in discussions of policies as well as treatment and education efforts intended to protect young people from e-cigarette dependence.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    Management of Pediatric Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: A review

    Journal: The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2021, doi: 10.5863/1551-6776-26.4.339

    Authors: Justin P. Reinert, O’Neill Niyamugabo, Kiersi S. Harmon & Norman E. Fenn

    Abstract:
    With significant increases noted in adolescent marijuana use across the United States, perhaps as a result of legislative changes over the past half-decade, clinicians must be increasingly aware of the potential negative health effects. One such effect that warrants concern is cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) in the pediatric population. A systematic review of the literature was performed to determine the safety and efficacy of management strategies for CHS using PubMed, Scopus, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. Search terms used in each database were “pediatric OR child OR children OR adolescent” AND “cannabinoid OR marijuana” AND “hyperemesis OR cyclic vomiting OR vomiting” NOT “seizure OR chemotherapy OR pregnancy OR cancer OR AIDS OR HIV.” Fourteen pieces of literature that described either effective, ineffective, or supportive management strategies for pediatric CHS were included in this review. Benzodiazepines were the most reported efficacious agents, followed by topical capsaicin cream and haloperidol. A total of 9 of the 14 studies described intravenous fluid resuscitation and hot bathing rituals as supportive measures, and 7 cases reported traditional antiemetics were ineffective for CHS. The heterogenicity of reported data, combined with the limited number of encounters, make it difficult to ascertain whether a definitive treatment strategy exists. Clinicians should be cognizant of pharmacotherapy agents that are efficacious, and perhaps more importantly, avoid using traditional antiemetic therapies that do not provide benefit.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    “Know your epidemic, know your response”: Epidemiological assessment of the substance use disorder crisis in the United States

    Journal: PLoS ONE, 2021, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0251502

    Authors: Andrés Hernández, Minxuan Lan, Neil J. MacKinnon, Adam J. Branscum & Diego F. Cuadros

    Abstract:
    The United States (U.S.) is currently experiencing a substance use disorders (SUD) crisis with an unprecedented magnitude. The objective of this study was to recognize and characterize the most vulnerable populations at high risk of SUD mortality in the U.S., and to identify the locations where these vulnerable population are located. We obtained the most recent available mortality data for the U.S. population aged 15–84 (2005–2017) from the Centers for Diseases and Prevention (CDC). Our analysis focused on the unintentional substance poisoning to estimate SUD mortality. We computed health-related comorbidities and socioeconomic association with the SUD distribution. We identified the most affected populations and conducted a geographical clustering analysis to identify places with increased concentration of SUD related deaths. From 2005–2017, 463,717 SUD-related deaths occurred in the United States. White population was identified with the highest SUD death proportions. However, there was a surge of the SUD epidemic in the Black male population, with a sharp increase in the SUD-related death rate since 2014. We also found that an additional average day of mental distress might increase the relative risk of SUD-related mortality by 39%. The geographical distribution of the epidemic showed clustering in the West and Mid-west regions of the U.S. In conclusion, we found that the SUD epidemic in the U.S. is characterized by the emergence of several micro-epidemics of different intensities across demographic groups and locations within the country. The comprehensive description of the epidemic presented in this study could assist in the design and implementation of targeted policy interventions for addiction mitigation campaigns.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

     

    Higher Marijuana use among Young Adults Persists Even during Pregnancy

    Journal: Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetric Advancements, 2021, Volume 1,  Issue 1

    Authors: Priya S. Gupta, Krishna Upadhya, Pamela Matson, Susanna Magee, Hoover Adger & Maria Trent

    Abstract:
    Background: Marijuana is linked to adverse pregnancy health effects, yet limited data exist regarding demographic and regional differences in marijuana use during pregnancy.

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of prenatal marijuana use among reproductive-age women and assess regional and age-related differences.

    Methods: This study secondarily analyzed cross-sectional, population-based Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data from states querying about marijuana use. It included 10,350 women with live births in 2009–2011. Primary outcome was “any use of marijuana” during pregnancy. Logistic regression analysis examined associations between marijuana use, age, and other socio demographic characteristics.

    Results: In all states, marijuana use during pregnancy was more likely in adolescent and young adults (AYA; <25 years) than older mothers: Alaska, prevalence rate ratio (PRR), 2.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–2.6); Hawaii, PRR, 1.55 (95% CI, 1.2–1.9); Vermont, PRR, 2.44 (95% CI, 1.9–2.9). Regression analyses, controlling for other demographic characteristics, showed that age <25 was associated with higher odds of marijuana use in Alaska (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.24 [95% CI, 1.9–2.5]) and Vermont (aOR, 1.74 [95% CI, 1.5¬–1.9]). Smoking cigarettes during pregnancy was associated with higher odds of concomitant marijuana use in Alaska (aOR, (P<0.05)) and Vermont (aOR, 1.2 (P<0.05)).

    Conclusions: AYA reported higher marijuana use rates during pregnancy than older women. Cigarette use during pregnancy was associated with marijuana use. Additional research, examining national marijuana use patterns and maternal and child health outcomes in the context of evolving marijuana policies, is warranted.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    By Partnership Staff
    June 2021

    Published

    June 2021