Research News Roundup: June 24, 2021

    Association between Electronic Cigarette Use and Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Journal: BMC Public Health, 2021, doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-10935-1

    Authors: Doireann O’Brien, Jean Long, Joan Quigley, Caitriona Lee, Anne McCarthy & Paul Kavanagh

    Background: This systematic review of prospective longitudinal primary studies sought to determine whether electronic cigarette (e cigarette) use by teenagers who had never smoked conventional tobacco cigarettes (tobacco cigarettes) at baseline was associated with subsequently commencing tobacco cigarette smoking.

    Methods: The review followed the principles of a systematic review and meta-analysis. A key word search identified peer-reviewed articles published between 1 January 2005 and 2 October 2019 from seven bibliographic databases and one search engine. Using pre-prepared inclusion/exclusion criteria two researchers independently screened abstracts, and subsequently, full text papers. Selected articles were quality assessed in duplicate. Data on study participants characteristics, exposure and outcome measures were recorded in an adapted Cochrane Data Extraction Form. Feasibility assessment was done to detect clinical heterogeneity and choose an approach to metaanalysis. Analysis comprised pairwise random effects meta-analyses, and sensitivity and subgroup analyses.

    Results: From the 6619 studies identified, 14 one-off primary studies in 21 articles were suitable for inclusion. The participants ages ranged from 13 to 19 years and comprised teenagers based in Europe and North America. Nine of the 14 one-off studies, with follow-up periods between 4 and 24 months, met the criteria for inclusion in a metaanalysis of the association between ever use of e-cigarettes and subsequent initiation of tobacco cigarette use. Based on primary study adjusted odds ratios, our meta-analysis calculated a 4.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.00– 5.48, I2 68%, 9 primary studies) times higher odds of commencing tobacco cigarette smoking for teenagers who had ever used e-cigarettes at baseline, though the odds ratio were marginally lower (to 3.71 times odds, 95%CI: 2.83–4. 86, I2 35%, 4 primary studies) when only the four high-quality studies were analysed.

    Conclusion: The systematic review found that e-cigarette use was associated with commencement of tobacco cigarette smoking among teenagers in Europe and North America, identifying an important health-related harm. Given the availability and usage of e-cigarettes, this study provides added support for urgent response by policymakers to stop their use by teenagers to decrease direct harms in this susceptible population group, as well as to conserve achievements in diminishing tobacco cigarette initiation.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    Factors Associated with Likelihood of Initiating Others into Injection Drug Use Among People Who Inject Drugs in West Virginia

    Journal: AIDS Behav., 2021, doi: 10.1007/s10461-021-03325-6

    Authors: Sean T. Allen, Kristin E. Schneider, Alyona Mazhnaya, Rebecca Hamilton White, Allison O’Rourke, Alex H. Kral, Ricky N. Bluthenthal, Michael E. Kilkenny & Susan G. Sherman

    Abstract: People who inject drugs (PWID) play a critical role in injection-naïve individuals transitioning to injection drug use. We investigated factors associated with future likelihood of initiating injection-naïve individuals using multivariable logistic regression among 418 PWID in rural Appalachia (Cabell County, West Virginia). Less than 10% reported they were likely to initiate someone in the future. Acquiring syringes from a syringe services program was associated with decreased odds of being likely to initiate someone in the future (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.46, 95% CI 0.23, 0.95), while having previously initiated someone into injection drug use was associated with increased odds (aOR 8.65, 95% CI 4.07, 18.41). Among our sample of PWID in Appalachia, a small proportion reported that they would be likely to initiate an injection-naïve individual in the future. Efforts to reduce injection initiation assistance should focus on this subpopulation of PWID who indicate a willingness to engage in this behavior.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    Flavored Cannabis Product Use Among Adolescents in California

    Journal: Prev Chronic Dis., 2021, doi: 10.5888/pcd18.210026

    Authors: Miranda Werts, Janelle Urata, Shannon Lea Watkins & Benjamin W. Chaffee

    Abstract: Given the well-documented role of flavors in encouraging tobacco use among adolescents and diversity of the cannabis market, we describe flavored cannabis product use, both smoked and aerosolized (“vaped”), among a sample of adolescents. We surveyed 1,423 students in 8 Northern and Central California public high schools (2019–2020) to record flavored tobacco and cannabis use. Among past 30-day cannabis users, use of flavored cannabis, most often fruit-flavored, was common for smoked (48.1%) and vaped (58.0%) products. Given that youth-appealing flavors may contribute to underage cannabis use, emerging cannabis control policies should consider lessons from tobacco control to prevent youth cannabis use.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    Journal: PLoS One, 2021, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0250500

    Authors: Sabra L. Katz-Wise, Vishnudas Sarda, S. Bryn Austin & Sion Kim Harris

    Purpose: Gender minority (GM) adolescents, who have a different gender identity than their sex assigned at birth, may use substances as a coping strategy in response to GM-related stressors. This study examined longitudinal effects of gender minority stressors on substance use in GM adolescents, and related risk factors (internalized transphobia, depressive symptoms, anxious symptoms) and protective factors (resilience, gender-related pride, family functioning, social support, gender-related community connectedness).

    Methods: Participants were 30 GM adolescents, ages 13-17 years, from the U.S. community-based longitudinal Trans Teen and Family Narratives Project. Participants completed an online survey every 6 months across 2 years (5 waves; data collected 2015-2019).

    Results: Exposure to gender minority stressors was associated with higher odds of alcohol use. Across models, internalized transphobia (risk factor), resilience (protective factor), and gender-related pride (protective factor) were the most significant mediators of associations between gender minority stressors and substance use. Family functioning and social support (protective factors) significantly moderated the association between gender minority stressors and alcohol use, such that family functioning and social support were protective for alcohol use at lower levels of gender minority stress, but not at higher levels.

    Conclusion: Results suggest that GM adolescents engage in substance use as a coping strategy in response to gender minority stressors. A number of hypothesized risk and protective factors mediated or moderated these associations. Future interventions with GM adolescents should focus efforts on addressing internalized transphobia as a risk factor and strengthening resilience, gender-related pride, and family functioning as protective factors for substance use.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.

    Therapeutic Approaches to Opioid Use Disorder: What is the Current Standard of Care?

    Journal: Int J Gen Med., 2021, doi: 10.2147/IJGM.S295461

    Authors: Joseph A. Carley & Tyler Oesterle

    Abstract: Opioid use disorder is a frequent cause of suffering to communities worldwide. Therapeutic approaches to opioid use disorder include screening, appropriate assessment and diagnosis, consideration of level of care, acute management of overdose or withdrawal, treatment with medications, psychotherapeutic approaches, and community support. People who struggle with addiction to opioids often suffer deeply from direct and indirect consequences of use. Subsequently, it is critical that all medical providers understand the appropriate treatment options for opioid use disorder. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the therapeutic options available for treatment of this chronic disease.

    To read the full text of the article, please visit the publisher’s website.


    June 2021