Association between Child Maltreatment and Substance Use Disorder across Emerging Adulthood

Journal: Child Maltreatment, 2023, doi: 10.1177/10775595231154545

Authors: Kate Guastaferro, Ashley N. Linden-Carmichael & Shou-Chun Chiang


Child maltreatment is associated with substance use beginning in adolescence and throughout early adulthood. Substance use disorders (SUD) are most likely to develop during emerging adulthood (18-25 years old). Thus, to develop effective substance use prevention strategies, it is useful to know the ages at which associations between maltreatment exposure (prior to age 18) and SUD are most strongly tied. This study examined the age-varying association between child maltreatment and past-year SUD in emerging adulthood by sex and by maltreatment type using time-varying effect models (TVEM). Data were from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III). The analytic sample consisted of 5194 emerging adults. The association was strongest at younger ages, with individuals who experienced child maltreatment having three times greater odds of reporting SUD in the past-year. Differential associations were found by sex, racial-ethnic group, and maltreatment type across age. Prevention efforts may be more effective if their development is informed by these important differences and targeted at emerging adults rather than adolescents.

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Understanding the Role of Financial Capacity in the Delivery of Opioid Use Disorder Treatment

Journal: BMC Health Services Research, 2023, doi: 10.1186/s12913-023-09179-z

Authors: Erick G. Guerrero, Hortensia Amaro, Yinfei Kong, Tenie Khachikian & Jeanne C. Marsh


Opioid treatment programs must have adequate financial capacity to sustain operations and deliver a high standard of care for individuals suffering from opioid use disorder. However, there is limited consistency in the health services literature about the concept and relationship of organizational financial capacity and key outcome measures (wait time and retention). In this study, we explored five common measures of financial capacity that can be applied to opioid treatment programs: (a) reserve ratio, (b) equity ratio, (c) markup, (d) revenue growth, and (e) earned revenue. We used these measures to compare financial capacity among 135 opioid treatment programs across four data collection points: 2011 (66 programs), 2013 (77 programs), 2015 (75 programs), and 2017 (69 programs). We examined the relationship between financial capacity and wait time and retention. Findings from the literature review show inconsistencies in the definition and application of concepts associated with financial capacity across business and social service delivery fields. The analysis shows significant differences in components of financial capacity across years. We observed an increase in average earned revenue and markup in 2017 compared to prior years. The interaction between minorities and markup was significantly associated with higher likelihood of waiting (IRR = 1.077, p < .05). Earned revenue (IRR = 0.225, p < .05) was related to shorter wait time in treatment. The interaction between minorities and equity ratio is also significantly associated with retention (IRR = 0.796, p < .05). Our study offers a baseline view of the role of financial capacity in opioid treatment and suggests a framework to determine its effect on client-centered outcomes.

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The Policy Landscape for Naloxone Distribution in Four States Highly Impacted by Fatal Opioid Overdoses

Journal: Drug and Alcohol Dependence Reports, 2023, doi: 10.1016/j.dadr.2022.100126

Authors: Robert M. Bohler, Patricia R. Freeman, Jennifer Villani, Tim Hunt, Beth S. Linas, Alexander Y. Walley, Traci C. Green, … Redonna Chandler


Background: Expanding access to naloxone is one of the most impactful interventions in decreasing opioid-related mortality. However, state distribution rates of naloxone are insufficient to meet community need. The current study sought to better understand this gap by focusing on state policies that may facilitate or impede naloxone distribution in four states highly impacted by fatal opioid overdoses – Kentucky, Massachusetts, New York, and Ohio.

Methods: We provide a descriptive analysis of the policy landscape impacting naloxone distribution through pharmacy and community channels in the four states participating in the HEALing Communities Study (HCS). Publicly available data and the expertise of the research team were used to describe each state’s naloxone access laws (NALs), Medicaid coverage of naloxone, and community overdose education and naloxone distribution infrastructure. Data presented in this study represent the most current policy landscape through September 2022.

Results: Variation exists between specific components of the NALs of each state, the structure of Medicaid coverage of naloxone, and the community distribution infrastructure networks. Massachusetts and New York have a statewide standing order, but other states use different strategies short of a statewide standing order to expand access to naloxone. Quantity limits specific to naloxone may limit access to Medicaid beneficiaries in some states.

Conclusion: States participating in the HCS have developed innovative but different mechanisms to ensure naloxone access. Policies were dynamic and moved towards greater access. Research should consider the policy landscape in the implementation and sustainability of interventions as well as the analysis of outcomes.

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Effects of Cannabinoids on Resting State Functional Brain Connectivity: A Systematic Review

Journal: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2023, doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2022.105014

Authors: Valentina Lorenzetti, Alexandra Gaillard, Diny Thomson, Amir Englund & Tom P. Freeman


Cannabis products are widely used for medical and non-medical reasons worldwide and vary in content of cannabinoids such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Resting state functional connectivity offers a powerful tool to investigate the effects of cannabinoids on the human brain. We systematically reviewed functional neuroimaging evidence of connectivity during acute cannabinoid administration. A pre-registered (PROSPERO ID: CRD42020184264) systematic review of 13 studies comprising 318 participants (mean age of 25 years) was conducted and reported using the PRISMA checklist. During THC and THCv exposure vs placebo reduced connectivity with the NAcc was widely reported. Limited evidence shows that such effects are offset by co-administration of CBD. NAcc-frontal region connectivity was associated with intoxication levels. Cannabis intoxication vs placebo was associated with lower striatal-ACC connectivity. CBD and CBDv vs placebo were associated with both higher and lower connectivity between striatal-prefrontal/other regions. Overall, cannabis and cannabinoids change functional connectivity in the human brain during resting state as a function of the type of cannabinoid examined.

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Mortality Relative Risks by Smoking, Race/Ethnicity, and Education

Journal: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2023, doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2022.12.006

Authors: Jihyoun Jeon, Maki Inoue-Choi, Yoonseo Mok, Timothy S. McNeel, Jamie Tam, Neal D. Freedman & Rafael Meza


Introduction: The impact of cigarette smoking on mortality is well studied, with estimates of the relative mortality risks for the overall population widely available. However, age-specific mortality estimates for different sociodemographic groups in the U.S. are lacking.

Methods: Using the 1987-2018 National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality Files through 2019, all-cause mortality relative risks (RRs) were estimated for current smokers or recent quitters and long-term quitters compared with those for never smokers. Stratified Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate RRs by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment. RRs were also assessed for current smokers or recent quitters by smoking intensity and for long-term quitters by years since quitting. The analysis was conducted in 2021-2022.

Results: All-cause mortality RRs among current smokers or recent quitters were generally highest for non-Hispanic White individuals than for never smokers, followed by non-Hispanic Black individuals, and were lowest for Hispanic individuals. RRs varied greatly by educational attainment; generally, higher-education groups had greater RRs associated with smoking than lower-education groups. Conversely, the RRs by years since quitting among long-term quitters did not show clear differences across race/ethnicity and education groups. Age-specific RR patterns varied greatly across racial/ethnic and education groups as well as by gender.

Conclusions: Age-specific all-cause mortality rates associated with smoking vary considerably by sociodemographic factors. Among high-education groups, lower underlying mortality rates for never smokers result in correspondingly high RR estimates for current smoking. These estimates can be incorporated in modeling analyses to assess tobacco control interventions’ impact on smoking-related health disparities between different sociodemographic groups.

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