Longitudinal Transition Outcomes among Adult Dual Users of E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes With The Intention to Quit in the United States: PATH Study (2013-2018)

Journal: Preventive Medicine Reports, 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2022.101750

Authors: Olatokunbo Osibogun, Zoran Bursac & Wasim Maziak


Many adult dual users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes in the United States report using e-cigarettes with the intention to quit (ITQ) smoking. This study examined transition outcomes among adult dual users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes with the ITQ compared to mono cigarette smokers with ITQ. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of 3,542 adults aged ≥ 18 years with data from Waves 1 and 4 of the United States Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study (2013–2018) between May 2021 and January 2022. Current dual users (e-cigarettes and cigarettes use on ≥ 20 days in the past month) with the ITQ were compared to current mono cigarette smokers with the ITQ for transition outcomes (cessation, mono e-cigarette, mono cigarette and dual use) three years later. We conducted multinomial logistic regression modeling adjusting for potential confounders and reported the adjusted relative risk ratios (aRRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the transition outcomes. Approximately 10.7% (7.8–14.3) of dual users with the ITQ (in 2013) reported cessation (no past-month use of any tobacco) three years later, compared to 16.1% (14.6–17.7) of mono cigarette smokers. Dual users were 83% and 79% less likely to transition to cessation (aRRR: 0.17, 95% CI:0.09–0.32) or mono cigarette use (0.21, 0.14–0.32), respectively, compared to mono cigarette smokers. Our findings show that in a real-world scenario, dual e-cigarette and cigarette use may hinder rather than facilitate smoking cessation among those interested in quitting. This needs consideration when assessing the population impact of e-cigarettes and their role in harm reduction.

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Couple and Family Therapy for Substance Use Disorders: Evidence-Based Update 2010-2019

Journal: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 2022, doi: 10.1111/jmft.12546.

Authors: Aaron Hogue, Jeremiah A. Schumm, Alexandra MacLean & Molly Bobek


This article updates the evidence-based on couple and family therapy interventions for substance use disorders (SUD) since publication of the previous JMFT reviews in 2012. It first summarizes previous reviews along with findings from more recent reviews and meta-analytic studies. It then presents study design and methods criteria used to select 13 studies of couple and family therapy for level of support evaluation. Cumulative level of support designations are then determined for identified treatment approaches. Findings indicate that systemic family therapy is well-established as a standalone treatment, and behavioral family therapy and behavioral couple therapy are probably efficacious as standalone treatments and well-established as part of a multicomponent treatment. The article then suggests practice guidelines with regard to treatment modality considerations and implementation challenges. It concludes with future directions for delivering couple and family interventions in routine systems of care for SUD.

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Fetal Exposure to Cannabis and Childhood Metabolic Outcomes: The Healthy Start Study

Journal: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2022, doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgac101

Authors: Brianna F. Moore, Katherine A. Sauder, Allison L. B. Shapiro, Tessa Crume, Gregory L. Kinney & Dana Dabelea


Objective: To assess the impact of fetal exposure to cannabis on adiposity and glucose-insulin traits in early life.

Research Design and Methods: We leveraged a subsample of 103 mother-child pairs from Healthy Start, an ethnically diverse Colorado-based cohort. Twelve cannabinoids/metabolites of cannabis (including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol) were measured in maternal urine collected at ~27 weeks’ gestation. Fetal exposure to cannabis was dichotomized as exposed (any cannabinoid > limit of detection [LOD]) and not exposed (all cannabinoids < LOD). Fat mass and fat-free mass were measured via air displacement plethysmography at follow-up (mean age: 4.7 years). Glucose and insulin were obtained after an overnight fast. Generalized linear models estimated the associations between fetal exposure to cannabis with adiposity measures (fat mass [kg], fat-free mass [kg], adiposity [fat mass percentage], body mass index [BMI], and BMI z-scores) and metabolic measures (glucose [mg/dL], insulin [uIU/mL], and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]).

Results: Approximately 15% of the women had detectable levels of any cannabinoid, indicating fetal exposure to cannabis. Exposed offspring had higher fat mass (1.0 kg; 95% CI, 0.3-1.7), fat-free mass (1.2 kg; 95% CI, 0.4-2.0), adiposity (2.6%; 95% CI, 0.1-5.2), and fasting glucose (5.6 mg/dL; 95% CI, 0.8-10.3) compared with nonexposed offspring. No associations were found with fasting insulin (in the fully adjusted model), HOMA-IR, BMI, or BMI z-scores.

Conclusions: We provide novel evidence to suggest an association between fetal exposure to cannabis with increased adiposity and fasting glucose in childhood, a finding that should be validated in other cohorts.

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Collaboration Leading to Addiction Treatment and Recovery from Other Stresses (CLARO): Process of Adapting Collaborative Care for Co-occurring Opioid Use and Mental Disorders

Journal: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 2022, doi: 10.1186/s13722-022-00302-9

Authors: Karen Chan Osilla, Alex R. Dopp, Katherine E. Watkins, Venice Ceballos, Brian Hurley, Lisa S. Meredith, Isabel Leamon, Vanessa Jacobsohn & Miriam Komaromy


Background: Opioid use disorders (OUD), co-occurring with either depression and/or PTSD, are prevalent, burdensome, and often receive little or low-quality care. Collaborative care is a service delivery intervention that uses a team-based model to improve treatment access, quality, and outcomes in primary care patients, but has not been evaluated for co-occurring OUD and mental health disorders. To address this treatment and quality gap, we adapted collaborative care for co-occurring OUD and mental health disorders.

Methods: Our adapted model is called Collaboration Leading to Addiction Treatment and Recovery from Other Stresses (CLARO). We used the five-step Map of Adaptation Process (McKleroy in AIDS Educ Prev 18:59–73, 2006) to develop the model. For each step, our stakeholder team of research and clinical experts, primary care partners, and patients provided input into adaptation processes (e.g., adaptation team meetings, clinic partner feedback, patient interviews and beta-testing). To document each adaptation and our decision-making process, we used the Framework for Reporting Adaptations and Modifications-Enhanced (Wiltsey Stirman in Implement Sci 14:1–10, 2019).

Results: We documented 12 planned fidelity-consistent adaptations to collaborative care, including a mix of content, context, and training/evaluation modifications intended to improve fit with the patient population (co-occurring disorders) or the New Mexico setting (low-resource clinics in health professional shortage areas). Examples of documented adaptations include use of community health workers as care coordinators; an expanded consultant team to support task-shifting to community health workers; modified training protocols for Problem-Solving Therapy and Written Exposure Therapy to incorporate examples of treating patients for depression or PTSD with co-occurring OUD; and having care coordinators screen for patients’ social needs.

Conclusions: We completed the first three steps of the Map of Adaptation Process, resulting in a variety of adaptations that we believe will make collaborative care more acceptable and feasible in treating co-occurring OUD and mental health disorders. Future steps include evaluating the effectiveness of CLARO and documenting reactive and/or planned adaptations to the model that occur during its implementation and delivery.

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Unintentional Drug Overdose Mortality in Years of Life Lost Among Adolescents and Young People in the US from 2015 to 2019

Journal: JAMA Pediatrics, 2022, doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.6032

Authors: O. Trent Hall, Candice Trimble, Stephanie Garcia, Parker Entrup, Megan Deaner & Julie Teater


This cross-sectional study assesses the mortality among adolescents and young people in the US from 2015 to 2019 in years of life lost from unintentional drug overdose.

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