Why You Shouldn’t Use the Word “Addict”

Addiction is a disease.

It’s important that we use language that frames it as a health issue and shows respect to people with an addiction and to their families who are impacted. Just like we would with any other disease, like diabetes or asthma.

Showing respect and compassion to people with an addiction and their families

A person shouldn’t be defined or labeled by his or her disease or illness, it is something they have. For example: Instead of calling someone a “diabetic,” it’s preferable to use person-first language and say “someone with diabetes.” The same goes with the word “addict.”

We have a choice when we communicate. We can use words that perpetuate the negative stigma around substance use – words that label people with an addiction in a negative, shameful and judgmental way. Or we can use words that are compassionate, supportive and respectful – words that helps others understand substance use disorder as the health issue that it is.

By choosing to rethink and reshape our language, we will allow people with an addiction to more easily regain their self-esteem and more comfortably seek treatment, allow lawmakers to appropriate funding, allow doctors to deliver better treatment, allow insurers to increase coverage of evidence-based treatment and help the public understand this is a medical condition and should be treated as such.

The Associated Press took an important step to stop using stigmatizing language toward people struggling with a substance use disorder, recognizing that words have power. We invite you to do the same.

Here is a list of words and phrases to avoid and words to use in their place. Together, with a unified language, we can help reshape the landscape and end the negative stereotypes and stigma of addiction. And by doing so, we can remove barriers that continue to hold back too many people from the lifesaving treatment they need.


AVOID SAYING: Abuse / Abuser

EXAMPLE: He’s a drug abuser.

WHY? Linked with violence, anger or a lack of control. Not positioned as a health issue and places blame on the person with an addiction.

INSTEAD SAY: Misuse, risky use, harmful use, inappropriate use, unhealthy use, hazardous use, problem use, unhealthy use, non-medical use; individual struggling with misuse, individual suffering with substance use disorder, individual struggling with chemical dependency.    



EXAMPLE: She’s an addict.

RELATED: alcoholic, crackhead, druggie, dopehead, doper, drunk, drunkard, junkie, pothead

WHY? The word addict is stigmatizing, reducing a person’s identity down to their struggle with substance use and denies their dignity and humanity. In addition, these labels imply a permanency to the condition, leaving no room for change. It’s better to use words that reinforce the medical nature of the condition.

INSTEAD SAY: A person with a substance use disorder (SUD), with addiction, in active addiction, experiencing an alcohol/drug problem, with an addictive disorder, with the disease of addiction, with an addictive disease; person who suffers/suffered with addiction; patient (if receiving treatment services).



EXAMPLE: He’s a drug user.

WHY? The term is stigmatizing because it labels a person by his or her behavior (much like “addict”).

INSTEAD SAY: Person who misuses alcohol/drugs; person engaged in risky use of substances.


AVOID SAYING: Clean/Sober/Staying Clean/Clean Test

EXAMPLE: She smoked pot for many years but now she’s clean; His test was clean.

WHY? It associates illness symptoms with filth and implies a person struggling with a dependence on drugs or alcohol is inherently “dirty” or socially unacceptable. Same goes when referring to a drug test as a “clean test” (i.e. a negative result/no evidence of use) or “dirty test” (i.e. to a positive result/evidence of use). These terms regarding tests should also be avoided.

INSTEAD SAY: In recovery, addiction-free, addiction survivor, in remission, maintaining recovery, wellness, quality of life, substance-free; positive test or negative test.



EXAMPLE: She has a bad drug habit.

WHY? A habit is something that can easily be broken through persistence or willpower. Addiction is more complicated. As a disease of the brain, it requires medical treatment in addition to an emotional commitment to treatment and recovery. Calling addictive disorders a habit denies the medical nature of the condition and implies that resolution of the problem is simply a matter of willpower.

INSTEAD SAY: Substance use disorder (SUD), alcohol and drug disorder, alcohol and drug disease, active addiction, inappropriate use, hazardous use, problem use, non-medical use, unhealthy use, misuse, risky use, harmful use; person struggling with misuse, person suffering with substance use disorder, person struggling with chemical dependency, person who suffers/suffered from/with addiction.


AVOID SAYING: Replacement/Substitution Therapy

Example: He takes Suboxone, a replacement therapy for his opioid addiction.

WHY? The use of this term applies to discussions surrounding treatments for opioid dependence like Methadone, Suboxone and Vivitrol. By describing them as “replacements,” it minimizes the validity of these treatments and implies that the individual is still actively using drugs. Methadone, Suboxone and Vivitrol are medications prescribed to a person suffering from an illness, the disease of opioid addiction. Addiction is an uncontrollable compulsive behavior. The first goal of addiction treatment is to stop this dangerous behavior. With medication-assisted treatment as part of a comprehensive treatment plan with behavioral counseling, the dangerous addictive behavior is stopped, not replaced – and life can be extended.

INSTEAD SAY: Medication-assisted treatment, anti-craving medication, medication, treatment.

Learn more about Medication-Assisted Treatment >> 

Michael Botticelli, former director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy

“For a long time, we’ve known that language plays a huge role in how we think about people and how people think about themselves. Words have to change so attitudes change.”

Michael Botticelli, former director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy in The Boston Globe

What other words do you think should be replaced? Let us know by leaving a comment below.


Sources/Further Info:



Editor’s Note: Some of our user-submitted stories and older blog posts on our website use “addict” and other words from the above list. We respect and understand those who choose to use certain terms to express themselves. However, when the Partnership creates new content, we will strive to use language that’s health-oriented, accurately reflects science, promotes evidence-based treatment and demonstrates respect and compassion.

19 Responses

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    December 15, 2018 at 3:01 PM

    Drugs and alcohol while having profound negative results are just one symptom of a complex emotional disease. To label someone with mental health issues as an addict or alcoholic is simplistic and unfair.

    User Picture


    December 22, 2017 at 9:00 AM

    Thank you so much for addressing the validity of medication-assisted treatment. After five years of the vicious cycle of dependency, debt and fear and guilt, with numerous attempts to quit painkillers, I was trapped. I got on methadone treatment just in time, and never looked back. I believe this treatment saved my life. My family and friends are supportive and my doctors are pleased that I take responsibility in treatment. But medication-assisted treatment, particularly methadone, is still stigmatized and misunderstood by much of the public. That angers me, as the most recognized conventional program refuses to consider that there is more than one path to recovery. I am proud of how well I’ve done in more than two years. I wish I could advocate for others on medication-assisted treatment. But it’s supposed to be shrouded in secrecy. I can only hope awareness may change public opinion over time. And the other terms listed in this article are just as important with their negative connotations and positive replacements.

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    August 29, 2017 at 1:50 PM

    The language we use when discussing substance use impacts the level of stigma around this topic, which influences issues of funding and resource allocation. People with experience in the field and with lived experiences related to substance use must be the pioneering advocates for changing the language through leading by example.

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    Elizabeth Schadrack

    June 27, 2017 at 10:10 PM

    I was addicted to golf after I lost my husband and it was a good thing.
    Kept me busy mentally and physically. I am a WHY person and know there is a reason for all human behavior and a solution as well. Why do people use drugs? Because they want to be happy or get out of their misery. They have feelings of worthlessness and being unloved. We need to praise our children and make them feel special. Praise is the glue that holds families together and the seeds we plant in our youth to build self-esteem. Self-esteem is the difference in finding your purpose in life or turning to drugs, alcohol, gangs and becoming homeless.

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    Dorothy G. Krasner

    June 26, 2017 at 2:26 PM

    Yes, words matter, but funding and attention and resources matter much, much more. I have been in the field of youth and human services since the 1970s. In that time, I have seen our state agency change its name several times. It has been the Office of Drug Abuse and Prevention, the Bureau of Drug and Alcohol Services, the Division for Drug and Alcohol Abuse and Prevention and Recovery and now it is the Bureau of Drug and Alcohol Services. Whatever its name, it has never received adequate dunging from the legislature, high priority support from the executive branch, or consistent attention from the public. The number and breadth of provider agencies has not kept up with the need, so the opioid crisis finds us struggling. Can we please concentrate on getting resources to those who need them, including individuals, families, and providers? BTW, I am a diabetic; in the twenty-plus years since onset, I have never felt stigmatized by the word.

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      Dorothy G. Krasner

      June 26, 2017 at 2:29 PM

      Sorry, I meant adequate funding from the legislature.

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        Jose Carreon

        June 26, 2017 at 11:02 PM

        Whew Ms. Krasner, I thought that there was aa new word that I had to know the definition of because I did not know what dunging meant! However you are right we do have more important matters that we need to concern ourselves with then semantics. I remember when we were told that we should not use the term illegal drug misuse because that implied that there was a way that we could use illegal drugs and not misuse them. Right now we should all be fighting for adequate funding for treatment.

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          August 15, 2017 at 2:47 PM

          There is also a need for adequate funding for prevention.

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